Saturday, June 6, 2015

Difference between regular bank lending and capital markets

Regular bank lending is not usually classed as a capital market transaction, even when loans are extended for a period longer than a year. A key difference is that with a regular bank loan, the lending is not securitized (i.e., it doesn't take the form of resalable security like a share or bond that can be traded on the markets). A second difference is that lending from banks and similar institutions is more heavily regulated than capital market lending. A third difference is that bank depositors and shareholders tend to be more risk averse than capital market investors. The previous three differences all act to limit institutional lending as a source of finance. Two additional differences, this time favoring lending by banks, are that banks are more accessible for small and medium companies, and that they have the ability to create money as they lend. In the 20th century, most company finance apart from share issues was raised by bank loans. But since about 1980 there has been an ongoing trend for disintermediation, where large and credit worthy companies have found they effectively have to pay out less in interest if they borrow direct from capital markets rather than banks. The tendency for companies to borrow from capital markets instead of banks has been especially strong in the US. According to Lena Komileva writing for The Financial Times, Capital Markets overtook bank lending as the leading source of long term finance in 2009 - this reflects the additional risk aversion and regulation of banks following the 2008 financial crisis.

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